《南傳法句經》第7-8

 

故事為鄙人摘譯自 K. Sri Dhammananda 長老主編的英文版 The Dhammapada,添枝減葉若干。

 

  《法句經》第7偈與第8偈同個故事,主角是兩兄弟,名喚大黑(Mahākāla)和小黑(Cūlakāla)。話說兄弟倆原本是做買賣的,某日,四處兜售貨物時,趕巧聽聞佛陀說法。大黑聽後,頓時生起信心,立即削髮做了比丘。兄不離弟、弟不離兄,小黑也跟著披上袈裟,但他卻不是因信而出家。

  大黑格外認真精進,在墳地修不淨觀,觀想肉身的腐敗與無常。終於證得觀智,修成阿羅漢。然則,小黑這會兒在幹嘛?欸,他對精神提升了無興趣,腦中千迴百轉,所想的盡是感官欲樂。

  之後,佛陀與弟子們,包括大小黑兄弟,暫居申恕林(Sisapā)。居停期間,小黑的前妻們(英文用的是複數,不是我造謠)邀請佛陀與弟子至其家中接受供養。小黑逮著機會,獨自先回去準備安排座席等等事宜。大小老婆七嘴八舌,成功地說服丈夫還俗,重拾在家生活。

  隔天,大黑的老婆們如法炮製,邀請佛陀和諸弟子到家供養,希望趁機勸回丈夫。用齋後,她們請求佛陀讓大黑留下做隨喜開示(anumodanā)。於是佛陀便帶著弟子先行離去。

  走到村子大門時,比丘們憂心忡忡,惟恐大黑也跟弟弟一樣退了道心,離開僧團。對此,佛陀老神在在,答說這兩兄弟乃雲壤之別。小黑耽溺於感官欲樂,心志軟弱;而大黑卻絲毫不受欲樂所誘,精勤不搖,對佛法僧三寶深具信心。佛陀結論道,弱者屈服於誘惑,強者則不如是。

 

 

[巴利原文與英譯取自 Nārada 長老編譯的 The Dhammapada

 

007 The Weak Succumb to Temptation but Not the Strong

 

Subhānupassiṃ viharantaṃ

Indriyesu asaṃvutaṃ

Bhojanamhi amattaññuṃ

Kusītaṃ hīnaviriyaṃ

Taṃ ve pasahati māro

Vāto rukkhaṃ’va dubbalaṃ

 

 

Whoever lives contemplating pleasant things, with senses unrestrained, in food immoderate, indolent, inactive, him verily Māra overthrows, as the wind (overthrows) a weak tree.

 

 

008 The Weak Succumb to Temptation but Not the Strong

 

Asubhānupassiṃ viharantaṃ

Indriyesu susaṃvutaṃ

Bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṃ

Saddhaṃ āraddhaviriyaṃ

Taṃ ve nappasahati māro

Vāto selaṃ’va pabbataṃ

 

 

Whoever lives contemplating “the Impurities,” with senses restrained, in food moderate, full of faith, full of sustained energy, him Māra overthrows not, as the wind (does not overthrow) a rocky mountain.

 

 

[中譯取自法增比丘的《南傳法句經新譯》]

 

若人逐欲樂(不淨以為淨),不攝護根門,

飲食不節量,懈怠不精進,

必為魔*所制,如風倒弱樹。

 

 

*Māra,陰魔、業行魔、死魔、煩惱魔、天魔,這裡指煩惱。

 

 

若觀身不淨(三十二身分觀,墓墟觀),攝護諸根門,

飲食知節量,正信(對三寶的信心)勤精進,

魔不能摧毀,如風難搖石。

 

 

NOTES 

註釋主要依據: A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R. C. Childers;

Pali-English Dictionary, by T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede

 

Subha: (adj) radiant, lustrous; beautiful; good; auspicious, happy

Anupassī: (adj) looking at, contemplating, observing

Subhānupassī: (adj) contemplating what is pleasant, or objects of desire

Viharati: to dwell, sojourn, live   ppr. viharanta

Indriya: (n) an organ of sense; a power, faculty; function, organ; a moral quality; sense, perception, acquisition; sex

Saṃvuṇāti, -ṇoti: to cover    pp. saṃvuta: restrained, controlled

Asaṃvuta: (adj) unrestrained, intemperate

Bhojana: (n) food

Amattaññū: (adj) immoderate, intemperate

Kusīta: (adj) slothful, inert, indolent

Hīnaviriya: (adj) feeble

Taṃ: (pron) him

Ve: (particle) indeed, truly, verily

Pasahati: to use force, overcome, subdue, oppress

Māra: (m) Death, the Tempter; the Evil principle; killing

Vāta: (m) wind

Rukkha: (m) a tree

Iva, viya, va: (part.) like, as

Dubbala: (adj) weak

 

Asubha: (adj) bad, ugly, disagreeable, nasty, disgusting, offensive

Anupassī: (adj) looking at, contemplating, observing

Asubhānupassī: (adj) contemplating what is unpleasant, or the impurities

Viharati: to dwell, sojourn, live   ppr. viharanta

Indriya: (n) an organ of sense; a power, faculty; function, organ; a moral quality; sense, perception, acquisition; sex

Saṃvuṇāti, -ṇoti: to cover    pp. saṃvuta: restrained, controlled

Susaṃvuta: (adj) well restrained

Bhojana: (n) food

Mattaññū: (adj) moderate, temperate

Saddha: (adj) faithful, believing

Ārabhati: to begin; undertake; attempt; exert oneself; obtain by exertion     pp. āraddha: having begun; striving, exerting oneself

Āraddhaviriya: (adj) making an effort, strenuous

Taṃ: (pron) him

Ve: (particle) indeed, truly, verily

Na: (negative particle) not

Pasahati: to use force, overcome, subdue, oppress

Māra: (m) Death, the Tempter; the Evil principle; killing

Vāta: (m) wind

Sela: (adj) rocky    (m) a rock, hill, mountain

Iva, viya, va: (part.) like, as

Pabbata: (m) a mountain

 

 

 

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