《南傳法句經》第9 - 10

 

 

故事為鄙人摘譯自 K. Sri Dhammananda 長老主編的英文版 The Dhammapada,添枝減葉若干。

 

  《法句經》第9偈與第10偈由反派大角提婆達多(Devadatta)領銜主演。按字面意思來看,Deva為天或神(god),Datta 則是dadātito give)的過去分詞;兩字合起來,意謂God-given,因此漢譯亦作「天授」。不過,提婆達多此一音譯名字較廣為人知。提婆達多來頭非常不小,他不但是佛陀的堂兄弟、也是佛陀妻子耶輸陀羅的兄弟。如此親上加親,卻偏偏一再跟佛陀作對,破壞僧團、謀殺佛陀,簡直壞的沒道理可講,最後直接下了地獄。當然,這是有宿世的因果關係。咱們來瞧瞧這回他幹了啥事兒。

  話說某日,佛陀的兩大弟子舍利弗尊者和目犍連尊者一起從舍衛城遊化到王舍城。王舍城百姓特地邀請兩位尊者和其他比丘,供養早餐。當時,有人饋贈一匹非常貴重的布料給供養儀式的主辦者,並交代他們,萬一資金不足,就把那塊布料變賣也罷。若是資金充裕,那麼,就把布料送給他們認為值得受贈的比丘。主辦單位啥也不缺,便決定把布料送給與會的比丘之一。由於兩大弟子只偶爾拜訪王舍城,而提婆達多長住當地,所以他們認為把布料送給提婆達多較為合適。這可是錯把土雞當鳳凰,送錯人啦。

  提婆達多拿到布料後,旋即做了一件袍子穿上身。之後,某位王舍城的比丘前往舍衛城頂禮佛陀,順便稟報此事。佛陀歎氣說,這可不是提婆達多頭一次穿著德行不配的僧袍。接著,說起下面的故事。

  提婆達多前世曾經是一位獵象人。那時,在某處森林中,住著一大群大象。一天,這位獵人注意到,每當象群見到辟支佛(Paccekabuddha)時,便會向他下跪。觀察一陣後,這個獵人偷了一件袈裟的上衣穿上,蓋住自己的身體和手。然後,他一手握著長矛,在象群平日行走的路上埋伏等待。象群來到後,誤把他認作是辟支佛,向他下跪行禮,輕易地淪為獵物。他就這樣逐一獵殺大象。

  那一世,佛陀還是菩薩,尚未成佛,投生為這群大象的領袖。他留意到象群的數目日漸減少,決定進行調查,跟在象群隊伍後面壓陣。象王警覺性高,避開了偷襲的利矛。他用長鼻捲起獵人,正要將這壞蛋砸落地下時,看見他穿在身上的黃色袈裟,當下打消念頭,饒他一命。

  這個獵人錯了,他實在不該意圖穿著僧袍偽裝,殺害大象,犯下如此邪惡的罪行。藉由這個故事,佛陀說明提婆達多前世曾經如何濫用僧袍。

 

 

-------- 小註 --------

 

辟支佛即緣覺,與佛陀一樣,自行覺悟四聖締與十二因緣法,徹底根絕一切染著煩惱。不同之處在於,辟支佛雖然自己證悟,但無法教導他人。他們往往降生在無佛法之世,靠著自身智慧觀察事物因緣和合的本質,從而證悟。

 

 

 

[巴利原文與英譯取自 Nārada 長老編譯的 The Dhammapada

 

009 The Pure Are Worthy of the Yellow Robe But Not the Impure

 

 

Anikkasāvo kāsāvaṃ

Yo vatthaṃ paridahessati

Apeto damasaccena

Na so kāsāvaṃ arahati

 

 

Whoever, unstainless, without self-control and truthfulness, should don the yellow robe, is not worthy of it.

 

 

 

010 The Pure Are Worthy of the Yellow Robe But Not the Impure

 

 

Yo ca vantakasāv’ assa

Sīlesu susamāhito

Upeto damasaccena

Sa ve kāsāvaṃ arahati

 

 

He who is purged of all stain, is well-established in morals and endowed with self-control and truthfulness, is indeed worthy of the yellow robe.

 

 

 

[中譯取自法增比丘的《南傳法句經新譯》]

 

人若不離欲,不守持戒律,

不見真(Sacca 真理)克己(Dama 調御,自制),不應著袈裟*。

 

* Kāsāva = kāsāya 雜色衣,糞掃衣,出家眾的衣。

 

 

 

人若離貪欲,善守持戒律,

克己復見真,應穿著袈裟。

 

 

 

NOTES 

註釋主要依據: A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R. C. Childers;

Pali-English Dictionary, by T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede

 

Nikkasāva: (adj) free from impurity or sin

Anikkasāva: impure

Kasāva: (m/n) stain, impurity

Kāsāva: (n) the yellow robe   (adj) yellow, reddish yellow

Yo: (pron) who, what, which; he who; whoever

Vattha: (n) clothes

kāsāvaṃ vatthaṃ: the yellow robe of a Buddhist monk

Paridaheti: to put on, wear

Apeta: (pp. of apeti) having departed [+abl.]; deprived of [+ins.]

Dama: (m) self-restraint, discipline

Sacca: (n) truth

Apeta damasaccena: void of self-restraint and truth

Na: (negative particle) not

So: (pron) he; this; that

Arahati: to deserve, to be worthy of; to be able; to be fit; to honor

 

Yo: (pron) who, what, which; he who; whoever

Vanta: (pp. of vamati) rejected, put away, given up, left behind

Vamati: to vomit, eject, discharge

Vantakasāva: one who has left behind all stain

Assa: (opt of atthi, 3rd pers. singular) is; should one be

Sīla: (n) a moral precept, morality, moral practice, piety; nature, character; habits, customs, practice, conduct

Samāhita: (pp. of samādahati) firm, fixed, steadfast, established in

Samādahati: to put together

Susamāhita: (pp) well-established

Upeta: (pp. of upeti) possessed of

Dama: (m) self-restraint, discipline

Sacca: (n) truth

Upeta damasaccena: endowed with self-restraint and truth

Sa, so: (pron) he; this; that

Ve: (particle) indeed, truly, verily

Kāsāva: (n) the yellow robe   (adj) yellow, reddish yellow

Arahati: to deserve, to be worthy of; to be able; to be fit; to honor

 

 

 

 

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