《南傳法句經》第11 - 12

 

故事為鄙人摘譯自 K. Sri Dhammananda 長老主編的英文版 The Dhammapada,添枝減葉若干。

 

  《法句經》第11偈與第12偈的故事主人翁是佛陀座下的雙賢弟子──智慧第一的舍利弗、與神通第一的目犍連。在歸依佛陀之前,舍利弗名喚鄔波帝瑟(Upatissa),目犍連則叫做枸利陀(Kolita)。這對好友住在王舍城,自幼即是知交。某日,兩人看戲的當兒,豁然領悟萬物虛假不真,便決定一起尋求解脫之道。他們先投入苦行者桑杰耶(Sañjaya)的門下,但學完他的教義後,仍然覺得有所不足,不夠圓滿。於是,兩人互相約定,各自雲遊拜師學道,任何一方尋得真正的不死法時,當即告知另一方。兩人就此分手,四處參學訪道。努力多年後,皆無所獲,最後只好重返家鄉。

  一天,鄔波帝瑟走在路上,巧遇阿說示尊者(Assaji,意譯「馬勝」,為佛陀初轉法輪時度化的五比丘之一),從其學到法的精要。當時,阿說示口占一偈,第一句是:「諸法因緣生。」(Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā)意謂,萬事萬物皆有個緣由。鄔波帝瑟在聽他誦偈的當下,就證得須陀洹(初果)。然後,他按照承諾,前往探望枸利陀,告知好友自己已證悟不死之境、並復誦一遍詩偈。枸利陀聽完後,也證得初果。他們想起以前的老師桑杰耶,希望與他分享,於是一起登門拜訪,稟報說:「我們已找到一位指引不死之道的人!佛已經出世了,法已被宣說了,僧團也已成形了。來吧,咱們一起去見佛陀。」但桑杰耶拒絕同行。

  鄔波帝瑟和枸利陀無可奈何,便帶領自己的眾多追隨者,前往竹林精舍謁見佛陀。他們入了僧團,成為比丘。枸利陀是目犍莉(Moggalī)的兒子,改名為目犍連(Moggallāna,意即目犍莉之子);鄔波帝瑟則改稱舍利弗(Sāriputta,意謂舍利之子)。受戒後的第七天,目犍連證得阿羅漢;舍利弗也在第十四天證悟阿羅漢。佛陀便委任他倆為上首弟子,協助弘法教化。

  兩人將前一位老師之事稟告佛陀,說桑杰耶告訴他們,他已經是許多學生的老師,假若投入佛陀座下,不啻把水罐變成飲水杯。另個理由是,世上只有少數人具有智慧,絕大多數是愚昧之輩。桑杰耶的想法是,智者不妨去歸依佛陀,愚人則追隨他。

  佛陀聽完後,指出桑杰耶錯誤的驕傲阻礙他見真為真,反而認假為真;以是之故,他永遠無法證悟真理。

 

 

按:阿說示尊者對舍利弗唸誦的偈子有不同翻譯,意義無甚差別,唯字句略有差異。譯文之一如下:「諸法因緣生,諸法從緣滅。我佛大沙門,常作如是說。」

 

 

 

[巴利原文與英譯取自 Nārada 長老編譯的 The Dhammapada

 

011 Right Perception Leads to the Realization of Truth

 

 

Asāre sāramatino

Sāre cāsāradassino

Te sāraṃ nādhigacchanti

Micchāsaṅkappagocarā

 

 

In the unessential they imagine the essential, in the essential they see the unessential, - they who entertain (such) wrong thoughts never realize the essence.

 

 

 

012 Right Perception Leads to the Realization of Truth

 

 

Sārañ ca sārato ñatvā

Asārañ ca asārato

Te sāraṃ adhigacchanti

Sammāsaṅkappagocarā

 

 

What is essential they regard as essential, what is unessential they regard as unessential, - they who entertain (such) right thoughts realize the essence.

 

 

 

[中譯取自法增比丘的《南傳法句經新譯》]

 

執邪以為正*,或執正為邪,

執持邪見者,不能見真諦。

 

 

*Sāra 真實,精要、無邪見、具戒定慧。

 

 

 

執正以為正,亦知邪為邪*

執持正見者,彼能見真諦。

 

*貪欲 Kāma;瞋恚 vyāpāda;害 vihi

 

 

 

NOTES 

註釋主要依據: A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R. C. Childers;

Pali-English Dictionary, by T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede

 

Sāra: (m) essence, substance, real truth, strength, core                  (adj) most excellent, genuine, perfect, essential

Asāra: worthless, unessential

Mati: (f) mind, understanding, imagination, thought, opinion, wish          (adj) sumati: wise;   dummati: foolish

Asāre sāramati: imagining the real in the unreal

Sāre asāradassī: Seeing the unessential in the essential

Dassī: (adj) seeing, showing

Adhigacchati: to enter upon, reach, attain

Te sāraṃ nādhigacchanti: They never arrive at the truth.

Micchā: (adv) falsely, wrongly

Saṅkappa: (m) thought, imagination, determination, resolve

Gocara: (m) pasture, food; abode, sphere; an object of sense, as form, sound

(metaphor) Gocara is that whereby anything is limited, wherein it abides, lives, moves, or upon which it operates, its sphere, domain, range, function, object, attributes. E.g. form is the gocara of the eye, ideas the gocara of the mind, etc.

Micchā saṅkappagocarā: they follow wrong thoughts, lit. false thoughts are their sphere

 

Sārato: abl. of sāra

Jānāti: to know, gain knowledge of; to comprehend, perceive; to ascertain; to recognize; to be intelligent    ger. ñatvā

Te sāraṃ adhigacchanti: They arrive at the truth.

Sammā: (indecl) fully, thoroughly, accurately, rightly, properly, really, truly

Sammā saṅkappagocarā: they entertain right thoughts, lit. right thoughts are their sphere

 

 

 

 

Giita 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()