《南傳法句經》第19 - 20

 

故事為鄙人摘譯自 K. Sri Dhammananda 長老主編的英文版 The Dhammapada,添枝減葉若干。

 

  《法句經》第19偈與第20偈的故事相同,其中深意頗值得玩味。話說有兩位比丘,同樣出身良好家庭,也是莫逆之交。其中一位不但精研經律論三藏,也擅長記誦說法。他教導許多弟子,成為十八群比丘的導師。另一位較年長,專心致志修習內觀,精勤不懈,終於證得阿羅漢果及種種觀智。

  某日,證悟的比丘前往祇園精舍向佛陀頂禮,兩位好友見了面。精通三藏的比丘有眼無珠,不曉得朋友已經蹐身阿羅漢,竟然輕視他,認為這個老比丘對殊勝法只略識之無。因此,他決定出幾道法義問題為難老友。佛陀明察秋毫,知道那位博學比丘的不善意圖,也明白嘲弄證悟的聖者,他必然會嚐到苦果。

  因此,出於慈悲,佛陀特地探視這兩位比丘,阻止博學比丘嘲弄他的朋友。如何阻止呢?佛陀親自提問,考問博學比丘關於禪定與證果的問題,這些都得透過實地禪修才能達到更高的成就,那位光說不練的三藏大師,博學歸博學,可答不出了。實修證得阿羅漢的比丘對答如流,輕鬆回答了所有問題。佛陀當即贊美老實修行悟法的比丘,對那位博學比丘則一句稱讚也沒有。

  常住弟子可納悶了,為何佛陀讚許那位老比丘,而不是他們的博學老師?佛陀觀機開示,博學比丘固然博覽群經,卻未依法修行,就好比一個牧牛人,為著工資照料牛群。實修者則像主人,充分取用牛隻的五種產品(牛奶、奶酪、酥油、牛尿、牛糞)。所以呢,學問淵博的老師只得到弟子的服務,而非聖道的真實利益。反觀那位老比丘,他雖然讀的很少,只會記誦一點兒,但他清楚了悟法的真髓,並勤勉修行,根絕了貪瞋痴。他的心已從一切染著中全然解脫,不再執著於今生或來世,他真實受用聖道的利益。

  故事頗富啟發性,不期然想起明代憨山大師所云:「能解不依空費力,日誦萬卷也徒然。」

 

 

 

[巴利原文與英譯取自 Nārada 長老編譯的 The Dhammapada

 

019 Learning Without Practice Is of No Worth

 

 

Bahum pi ce sahitaṃ bhāsamāno

Na takkaro hoti naro pamatto

Gopo’va gāvo gaṇayaṃ paresaṃ

Na bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti

 

 

Though much he recites the Sacred Texts, but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd who counts others’ kine. He has no share in the fruits of the Holy Life.

 

 

 

020 Learning Without Practice Is of No Worth

 

 

Appam pi ce sahitaṃ bhāsamāno

Dhammassa hoti anudhammacārī

Rāgañ ca dosañ ca pahāya mohaṃ

Sammappajāno suvimuttacitto

Anupādiyāno idha vā huraṃ vā

Sa bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti

 

 

Though little he recites the Sacred Texts, but acts in accordance with the teaching, forsaking lust, hatred and ignorance, truly knowing, with mind well freed, clinging to naught here and hereafter, he shares the fruits of the Holy Life.

 

 

 

[中譯取自法增比丘的《南傳法句經新譯》]

 

雖多誦經文,放逸不依法,

如牧數他牛,不獲沙門果。

 

 

 

雖少誦經文,遵教如法行,

息滅貪瞋痴,正智心解脫,

不著今後世,彼獲沙門果。

 

 

 

NOTES 

註釋主要依據: A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R. C. Childers;

Pali-English Dictionary, by T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede

 

Bahu: (adj) much, many; large, ample    pl. bahū, bahavo

Ce: (adv) even, if

Sahita: (adj) endowed with, accompanied by; united, connected with   (n) text of the Buddhist scriptures

Saṃhita: (=sahita  pp. sandahati / sandheti) fitted or equipped with, possessed of

Bhāsati: to speak, say, address     ppr. bhāsamāna

Takkara: (adj) doing that   (m) one who does that

Na takkaro hoti: is not a doer thereof

Nara: (m) a man

Pamatta: (pp. pamajjati) slothful, indolent, careless, reckless

Pamajjati: to delay, waste one’s time, be heedless, be negligent

Gopa: (m) a cowherd, a herdsman

Va, iva, viya: (part.) like, as

Go: (m/f) a bull, an ox, a cow   pl. gāvo

Gaṇeti, gaṇayati: to count, reckon, do sums; to consider, care for, regard     ppr. gaṇayaṃ

Paresaṃ: (gen. para) of others

Bhāga: (m) a share, portion; region, quarter, side; time; lot, destiny

Bhāgavā: (m) one who has a share

Sāmañña: (n) state of being an ascetic, or a Buddhist priest; monasticism

 

Appa: (adj) little, moderate, slight, few

Dhamma: (m/n) nature, condition, quality, property, characteristic; function, practice, duty; object, thing, idea, phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue, piety; justice; the law or Truth of Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion

Anudhammacārī: (m) living according to the Dhamma

Rāga: (m) human passion, desire, lust, dyeing, attachment, greed

Dosa: (m) anger, hatred

Pajahati: to forsake, abandon, give up, renounce, get rid of, escape from    Ger. pahāya

Moha: (m) delusion, error, folly, infatuation, ignorance; fainting, loss of consciousness

Sammappajāna: (m) having right knowledge

Suvimuttacitta: (m) with a well emancipated mind

Upādiyati: to take hold of, cling to the world, have attachment      ppr. upādiyāna, upādiyamāna

Anupādiyāna: not clinging to the world, free from attachment

Idha: (adv) here, hither, in this world

Vā: (conj) or

Huraṃ: (adv) in the other world, in another birth or existence

Sa: (=so) he

 

 

 

 

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